The United States has had the same type of government for more than 200 years. It's called a "representative democracy," which is a type of “republic” (link to http://www.williampmeyers.org/republic.html for further information). Among the nations of the world, it is unusual for a system of government to last so long. Most governments are based on a written set of principles, sometimes called a "constitution" or a "charter." When citizens directly participate by voting, the government is called a "democracy."
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